A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].

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J d a linguistic theory of translation PDF | Damian Grzech –

In terms of probabilities we can state the translation equivalences as follows: The sentence is a unit of higher rank than the clause. Monthly downloads Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart. Structure, as we have said, is stated in terms of ordered arrangements in which linear sequence often is, but need not always be, a characteristic of elements: As we showed in j.c.catfodd.

It is changes of these types which we refer to as granslation. Bruno Osimo – – Sign Systems Studies 30 2: Dec 16, Ahmad Hossam rated it it was ok Shelves: Since every language is j.c.catgord sui generis — its categories being defined in terms of relations holding within the language itself— it is clear that formal correspondence is nearly always approxi- mate.

The elements of syllable-structure are J.c.catrord nucleus and K consonantal, or marginal element: If an SL item has a particularly restricted range of meaning it may not be possible to match this restriction in the TL. The exponent of C in English is the Ngp the man l saw, i.

In lexis there are formal relations between one lexical item and others in the same lexical set, and formal co-textual collocational relations between lexical items in texts. We might define collocational untranslatability thus: Definition and General Types 2.

Throughout this paper we make use of the abbreviations: X y z Form: We have” already seen several examples of unit shift in what precedes: The translation j.c.catfird is set up between varieties specifically Cockney and Parigot: This is virtually untranslatable into English because a comparable shared ex- ponence does not occur — Lower may occur as a place-name element, but it is not normally used by itself as an abbreviation.


Here again, however, translation equivalence must be set up between the varieties as such, and the specific markers may be very different in the SL and TL texts.

In both of these translations we have retained the two lexical items, man and see, unchanged, but have replaced all the grammatical items by equivalent French or Arabic grammatical items. The air traveller in India, for example, notices j.c.caford one side of his plane, the legend: The book is a valuable addition to the literature of a subject which has only recently begun to receive the scientific treatment it deserves.

The extent to which translation can be used in language-teaching is an issue of great concern to teachers, and it is one which cannot be fruitfully discussed without the support of some theory about what translation is, about the nature transoation translation equivalence, the difference between linguistc equivalence and formal corres- pondence, the levels of language at which translations may be performed and so on.

It is, indeed, the pattern which is the language. The total co-text will supply information which the translator will use in coming to a decision, but it is difficult to define functional relevance in general terms.

Linguistic Theory of Translation

His grandmother has travelled down jc.catford Volga from Nijni Novgorod to look after the family. As with registers, so with styles, translatability depends on the existence of an equivalent style in the TL.

The overt language-behaviour described above is causally related to various other features of the situation in which it occurs. It is clear that the items listed above can be grouped in such a way.

Among the units of English phonology we find the syllable: But the Finnish and the English institutions are certainly different, and a sauna is not always a separate building — it may be a room in a house, hotel, or ship for instance.

It is this autonomy of phonology which makes it possible for two or more lexical or grammatical items to share the same phonological exponents — e. A lexical example might be bank, which is the graphological exponent of two distinct lexical items in English.

KNK, and so on. Literal 3 Never mind about them! Love Wine In the following table we give the translation-equivalents of French articles found in French texts with English translations. They are, however, relatable to stretches of the same situation-sub- stance. The child finds this funny and confusing; he reflects on who lives upstairs and downstairs in the house, and he wonders how one can come down the stairs without going on foot; and what has water to do with it?


It provides categories which are applicable in all branches of linguistic science. Change an element in the situation and observe what textual change occurs; change an item in a text and observe what situational changes occur.

This is the unit of stress or rhythm. A professor of zoology may give a lecture to a learned society in zoological register and formal style. Con- version from spoken to written medium, or vice-versa, is a universal practice among literates; but it is not translation, since it is not replacement by items which are equivalent because of relationship to the same substance.

Richard Kearney – – Research in Phenomenology 37 2: Shabnam Badri rated it did not like it Dec 25, The exponent of Q is a rank-shifted clause of structure SP. This definition is intentionally wide — not vague, though it may appear so at first sight.

The basis for equivalence here, as in total translation, is relationship to the same situation- substance. Sasan Fasaiian rated it it was amazing Sep 15, The same is true of contextual meanings.

The range of situational elements which are thus found to be relevant to a given linguistic form constitute the contextual meaning of that form. Pappa Karigabsa rated it really liked it Nov 22, French, with oui, si, non, and Norwegian and Swedish, with ja,jo, nej have a three-term system here. In each language, the system operates in nominal groupsand is characterized by concord between the exponents of S and P in clauses and so on.