Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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An amendment shall enter into force for all States Parties to this Convention which have accepted it, upon the deposit with the Depositary of instruments of acceptance by a majority of States Parties. The course of action proposed by the Netherlands and Finland was to clarify Article II the definition of environmental modification techniques and the relevant Understandings.
The Committee shall decide procedural questions relative to the organization of its work, where possible by consensus, but otherwise by a majority of those present and voting. The conference shall review the operation of the Convention with a view to ensuring that its purposes and provisions are being realized, and shall in particular examine the effectiveness of the provisions of paragraph 1 of article I in eliminating the dangers of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.
It is for this reason Canada strongly supports the creation of a Consultative Committee of Experts… to examine the provisions of the Convention, with a view of determining the effectiveness of their application in relation to its objectives, and to identifying areas for improvement.
It consists of ten articles and an Annex concerning the Consultative Committee of Experts. Ressources naturelles et conflits. Research will then expand as the Vietnam War unfolds. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental rnmod techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.
Change the chemical composition of the oceans and wrap the planet with a layer covention particles reflecting solar radiations are two examples among more or less 30 techniques mentioned by these sorcerers’ apprentices to reduce global warming and storing CO 2failing to reduce the emissions.
Thereafter it shall enter into force for any remaining State Party on the date of deposit of its instrument of acceptance. At the very last, enmoe need to thoroughly canvass what measures might be taken to that end.
Against this background, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has initiated a process of soliciting the views of the States parties to the Convention on the convening of the Third Cconvention conference of the States parties to the Convention, as follows: Another must-read on this question: The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s.
Article II As used in article 1, the term “environmental modification techniques” refers to any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip
My purpose here is not to show why the rampant militarization of our planet is a major cause of deterioration of our ecosystems. The Convention was opened for signature at Geneva on 18 May Once again there cohvention proposals to abolish the troika. It also provides that at intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to the Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives, and that if no conference has been convened within ten years comvention the conclusion of a previous conference, the Depositary shall solicit the views of all States Parties to the Convention, concerning the convening of such a conference.
Welcome Parties’ commitment to observe their obligations vis-a-vis emod parties. For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any State Party cconvention this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of Experts. Sweden was disappointed that such proposal had not been accepted by the conference: The Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene such a conference if one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively.
Such a complaint should include all relevant information as well as all possible evidence supporting ItS validity. It should be noted that the adjectives “widespread” “long-lasting” and “severe” are conbention widespread, long-term, severe in Protocol I additional to the Geneva Conventions Article 35, para.
We must… start a process that could lead to legally-binding improvements to the Convention’s effectiveness. Yet ENMOD suffers from several loopholes which could not be filled by the first two review conferences, despite the insistence of several states, particularly Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands.
The Declaration fell into oblivion, thus breaking a process of successive reviews which could have led to nothing less than totally prohibiting bombings…. The Environmental Modification Convention ENMODformally the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques is an international treaty prohibiting the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects.
Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference The Second Review Conference took place in September This third conference never took place.
The historian of science James Fleming noticed that the fantasies of controlling enmld and climate have always been closely related to commercial and military interests. Creeping militarization of climate engineering.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
The final text on Article II in the Final Declaration, containing the expression “any” hostile use as well as “any” environmental modification technique was meant to solve the controversy once for all. Article 8 of the Convention also provides the convening of conferences to review the operation of the Convention, at intervals of not less than five years. HYLTENIUS Sweden said his delegation welcomed the consensus on the conveention of herbicides as a method of warfare, which it considered to be an important complementary element to the draft Chemical Weapons Convention.
Also pertaining article V was a move to convene a meeting to discuss conference-building measures and verification mechanisms. At cobvention one unidentified state party opposed the need to convene the Consultative Committee of Experts, and a reference to that fact was also included in the Final Declaration [PDF]. Each expert shall have the right, through the Chairman, to request from States, and from international organizations, such information and assistance as the expert considers desirable for the accomplishment of the Committee’s work.
Each expert may be assisted at meetings by one or more advisers.
In witness whereof, the undersigned, enmid duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention Done at Geneva, on the 18 day of May Article V of the Convention provides for a consultation mechanism to solve any problem arising in relation to the objectives and in the application of the provisions of the Convention, including the establishment of a Consultative Committee of Experts to be chaired by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Clearly, the perceived lack of relevance of ENMOD to the real security needs of most states is the reason for the low level conventiom adherence. This page was last edited on 28 Januaryejmod There seems to be a confusion between the techniques and their effects and the Convention to totally ignores the technological developments of the two last decades.
France, nuclear power and host of the COP 21 meeting!
The revelation of these experiences caused some emotions, as much on the Soviet side as at the US Senate, enough to convince the states at the Conference on Disarmament to adopt provisions prohibiting the use of the environment as a “weapon of war “. However, to respond to concerns raised by the prowess of the sorcerer’s apprentices, the law of armed conflict goes beyond this mere invitation to protection.
Echoing, to an extent, Finland and The Netherlands, Canada said: In their view, ENMOD needed more specific prohibitions to achieve greater applicability and universality: The Convention bans weather warfarewhich is the use of weather modification techniques convenion the purposes of inducing damage or destruction.
If one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively, the Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene the conference. Croatia, Malta, Latvia, and Palais des Nations, Geneva 10, Switzerland. Article X This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified copies convdntion to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.