Find the most up-to-date version of DOE TIC at Engineering DOE-TIC (). Uploaded by fogdart. manual .. This manual w a s prepared f o r t h e Department of Energy, Amarillo Area O f f i c e, Amarillo, Texas. DOE/TIC .. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Amarillo Area Office Facilities and The AE will be given guidance as required by DOE.
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tci The munition is detonated using a perforating shaped charge. If the depth of burial is zero surface burst the fragment does not pass through any soil and the velocity of the fragment is the initial velocity.
Due to calculation restraints division by the depth of burialif the depth of burial is zero the software assumes a depth of burial of 0. The Structural Branch of the U. Is a crater or a camouflet formed?
There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at fic a camouflet is formed.
Comparison with the sandbag test results and consideration of some of the differences between the physical parameters of the tests and this analytical method indicates that this method generally produces conservative results. In most cases the explosion causes a crater. Therefore, as a conservative estimate, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half its undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity.
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Write statements 1168 inserted to print intermediate results. Examination of the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR  shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1. Box Huntsville, AL Telephone: For most unexploded 1128 the fragmentation range is much larger than the inhabited building distance IBD for overpressure.
If X is less than Y, a crater will be formed.
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Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks  Due to the nature of the equations used in BEM, the calculations will never result 11268 a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero.
Camouflet is formed 4. The software will be outlined and an example presented. The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely.
The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure and noise and fragmentation. The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required thickness of sandbags from the sandbag tests.
The input required for the software is detailed and two example problems are given. If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. The question becomes how much soil does the fragment have to penetrate before escaping and what is the density of this soil?
Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The results from the BEM software for mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to the roe of the sandbag tests completed to date. Also, BEM will never result in foe zero fragment velocity and fragment range. A munition is placed on its side on the ground surface and sandbags are placed around all four sides and the top of the munition with a 6- inch standoff from the munition.
In order to protect the disposal personnel as well as the public, a withdrawal distance from the detonation is enforced.
Average soil properties are used for each of these soil types. Tid X is greater than Y, a camouflet will be formed. The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3.
The distances that these soil fragments travel are called the maximum ejecta radii. Witness screens are used between sandbags to determine if fragments penetrate the sandbag layer and overpressure and noise measurements are taken at several distances from the center of the detonation. This software is described in the following sections. These radii are shown in Figure 5. If the energy release is sufficiently deep below the surface a void, called a camouflet, is formed.
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The user is prompted to input the following values. The Structural Branch has developed software to simplify and standardize the calculations to determine the withdrawal distance due to fragmentation and soil ejecta due to the detonation of a buried munition.
Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject tiv a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used.
Send comments regarding this burden estimate or eoe other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington VA Sandbag throw is also measured. The method addresses cratering and soil ejecta effects as well as primary fragmentation from the munition.
Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full dow between the explosive event and the soil. The BEM software produces the same results as when the method is applied by hand. The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, wet sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay.
However, where a crater is formed a burial depth may be found where the fragment range will be less than the soil ejecta range.